What is it and how does 5G work?

JSC Ingenium - Glossary: What is it and how does 5G work?

Undoubtedly, 5G technology is increasingly changing the way the whole world communicates. That’s why at JSC Ingenium, turnkey services and solutions provider, we are firmly committed to the skills of 5G to create a new concept of mobile networks.

If you don’t know what we are talking about, we invite you to continue reading to learn more about 5G technology and its great importance for the future of mobile networks.

What is 5G?

5G is the fifth generation mobile network. Basically, it’s a new global wireless standard after the launch of 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G networks. Its main feature is the enabling of a new type of network designed to connect everyone and everything together (objects, machines and devices).

The main purpose of this wireless technology is to deliver higher maximum data rates of several gbps, ultra-low latency, higher reliability and massive network capacity. In addition, 5G offers greater availability and a more uniform user experience. In short, it achieves greater performance and efficiency that enhance experiences and connect new industries.

How does 5G work?

Now that we know what 5G technology is, it’s a good idea to understand how it works, as it’s different from traditional 4G LTE. First, let’s talk about 5G spectrum.

Like 4G LTE, 5G technology works across a wide range of radio spectrum allocations, but is capable of operating over a wider range than current networks. The most common form of 5G that is used is Sub-6, and there is also mmWave.

Sub-6 refers to 5G operating at a frequency below 6GHz. All carriers have some form of Sub-6 network, mainly because 4G LTE currently runs on these lower frequencies.

Sub-6 spectrum is incredibly important in 5G deployment as these low-frequency radio waves can travel long distances and penetrate walls and obstacles. This way, operators can deploy much larger networks without having to build hundreds of cells in each city.

Then there is mmWave (millimeter wave), which refers to ultra-high frequency radio waves, between 30Ghz and 300Ghz, which are used to overload 5G connections and offer download speeds of several gigabits per second. Although mmWave connections can offer super-fast download speeds, high-frequency radio waves can’t travel long distances and can’t really get through obstacles; in most cases even a window or the leaves of a tree can block the connection.

That means that, in order to create a robust millimeter wave network, operators need hundreds or thousands of small network cells in each city. Therefore the deployment of mmwave networks should typically be reduced to building small networks in every corner of a building. So what is its usefulness? Well, mmWave can handle a lot of data and a lot of users simultaneously. That makes it more suitable for densely populated cities.

All major carriers are deploying mmWave networks, but to date, those ultra-fast connections are limited to some areas of major city centers. MmWave networks are expected to become more robust, but only time will tell how long it will actually take. The goal is to have higher speeds and a much higher capacity per sector, with much lower latency than 4G. The standards bodies involved aim for speeds of 20 gbps and a latency of 1 ms.

At JSC Ingenium we are firmly committed to 5G technology, its completely disruptive philosophy and its great skills to create a new concept of mobile networks.

The hyperelasticity provided by 5G will allow us to deploy several customizable networks at the same time, in order to meet the needs not only of our core business, but also of specific new business niches:

  • that automatically and intelligently adapt to any service environment;
  • that allow us to create independent, isolated and customizable network segments according to our needs;
  • which can work on any 2G/3G/4G radio technology and, of course, 5G;
  • enabling new tailor-made services;
  • that actively collaborate in their own operation and maintenance through intelligent assisted diagnostic systems;
  • that allow the continuous updating of its elements and services to always be up to date;
  • which are configurable autonomously, directly by the customer, without the need for qualified technical staff.

New 5G technology will allow MVNOs to have alternative networks for:


  • Focus on new business opportunities aimed at meeting temporary and specific needs;
  • Have a real test scenario that allows them to check whether a certain model will work or not.